Our external physical reality is a mathematical structure. That is, the physical universe is mathematics in a well-defined sense, and in those [worlds] complex enough to contain self-aware substructures SAS [they] will subjectively perceive themselves as existing in a physically 'real' world (- Max Tegmark's mathematical universe).
Magnets always have a north and a south pole. Physicists have been looking for a magnetic monopole, a hypothetical magnetic with only 1 pole, either north or south but not both. They believe that a magnetic monopole could not be created from normal matter such as atoms and electrons, but would instead have to be a new elementary particle. The Grand Unified Theories (or Theories of Everything) have hypothesized that such a monopole should exist.
This monopole remains hypothesized because we still cannot cut a magnet in half and get both a north and a south magnet; instead we always get 2 smaller magnets.
Einsteins Ampere meter:
Einstein proved that a magnetic field is the relativistic part of an electric field. This means that while an electric field acts between charges, a magnetic field acts between moving charges (as a charge moves through space more quickly and through time more slowly, its electromagnetic force becomes more magnetic and less electric). Therefore, the pole strength is the product of charge and velocity (A.m = e.c). Few calculations actually involve the strength of a pole in ampere-meters because a single magnetic pole has never been isolated en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ampere-meter.
Proposed here is a fundamental unit of charge that resembles our notion of a magnetic monopole. This monopole is simply an Ampere-meter 'σe' with units 'A.m' (or charge-velocity) constructed from Planck level units; elementary charge -e, speed of light -c and -α, alpha the fine structure constant.
In the article on the black hole electron, the units for the magnetic monopole can also be written in terms of t^1/3 (t is a unit of time) whereby for σe^3; units = (AL)^3 = t.
An electron can be formed from these monopoles. The dimensionless electron function fe numerically solves to
fe = σe^3/tp = 0.2389545319 x 10^23; units = t/t = 1 (unit for Planck time tp = t). As this formula is dimensionless, this number is a mathematical (universal) constant.
If these monopoles are the basis for charge then we might expect to find them in other charged particles like protons, however we consider that protons are made from quarks. For example, a Down quark has a -1/3rd charge; an Up quark has a +2/3rd charge, whereby;
• Proton = U+U+D = (2/3 + 2/3 -1/3 = 3/3) = 1 (electron) charge
• Neutron = U+D+D = (2/3 - 1/3 -1/3 = 0)
Theoretically we could use our σ monopoles as quarks by adding exponents instead of charges;
If quarks are actually monopoles in disguise, then the charge on a proton should be exactly the same magnitude as the charge on an electron (albeit with an opposite sign) and in fact it is, easy to explain if proton quarks really are the same as electron monopoles, somewhat more difficult if, according to physics, protons and electrons are different species.
Furthermore this electron function appears to dictate the frequency of the Planck units (Planck mass, Planck time, Planck length) suggesting a Planck unit theory.
New research suggests the electron is unimaginably spherical.
Electron particle shape revealed...
The most accurate measurement yet of the shape of the electron has shown it to be almost perfectly spherical. The discovery is important because it may make some of the emerging theories of particle physics - such as supersymmetry - less likely...
BBC News Electron particle's shape revealed The most accurate measurement yet of the shape of the electron has shown it to be almost perfectly spherical.
Nature Improved measurement of the shape of the electron: The electron is spherical. The standard model of particle physics predicts a slightly aspheric electron, with a distortion characterized by the electric dipole moment.
Scientists in Sweden film moving electron for the first time: