**Update pending!!!! Our external physical reality is a mathematical structure. That is, the physical universe is mathematics in a well-defined sense, and in those [worlds] complex enough to contain self-aware substructures SAS [they] will subjectively perceive themselves as existing in a physically 'real' world (- Max Tegmark's MUH).**

Summary: Replaces the 4 forces (gravitational, electric ... ) with physical links of momentum akin to photons

# Orbitals as anti-photons:

This is an outline of an orbital model where, instead of the 4 forces linking particles, there are orbitals, physical units of momentum. These orbitals could be described as anti-photons, being photons albeit of inverse phase such that photon + anti-photon = zero (as when 2 waves of inverse phase are added and cancel each other).

At the atomic level they may be described by atomic and molecular orbital theories, although they are 'physical' units/waves of momentum.

In this model there is no empty space within the atom and the electron is linked to the nucleus, not by an electrostatic force, but by this physical standing wave orbital (a unit of momentum).

Gravitational orbits are the sum of individual orbitals. As the moon orbitals curve around the earth, the motion of the moon is the sum of their vector momentum. Consequently, if the orbitals are unaligned, the moon will fall to the earth with a constant acceleration. If they are all perfectly aligned, the moon will follow them at orbital velocity. A gravitational orbit around the earth then becomes the sum of many individual gravitational orbitals, standing waves around the earth.

We may then define gravitational potential energy GPE as the state when the orbitals are completely unaligned and thus all vector motion sums to zero, and gravitational kinetic energy GKE as when the orbitals are completely aligned in 1 direction. The actual gravitational orbit then becomes a reflection of the degree of this alignment.

This however leads to the curious observation that, as these orbitals are standing waves, the frequency and so energy of a single gravitational orbital around the moon is higher than that of a corresponding gravitational orbital around the larger earth, ie: the smaller the object, the shorter the wavelength (circumference), and so the lower the frequency; E=hv. Thus we can compare the ionisation energy of an electron in an atom with particle escape velocity from a large asteroid.

Movement between orbitals becomes a function of orbital 'buoyancy', for example, a submarine may travel across the ocean at a fixed depth (i.e. 100m) via propeller motion (a motion within the 100m orbit), but to change from this equilibrium depth in order to rise to the surface or to sink further, it must change its mass density (add or eject ballast). And so, while gravitational momentum keeps the satellite following its orbit, it is not centrifugal force but this momentum 'buoyancy' which keeps the satellite from floating off into space or falling to the earth.

We take a region of 'empty' space in which there is a free electron and a free proton. This region collapses into a photon+antiphoton. The photon then escapes at the speed of light, the antiphoton is trapped between the electron and proton and remains, forming an orbital, a physical link. This region of space now incorporates 2 particles and an antiphoton orbital, it is an atom. As the photon has left (at the speed of light), the atom is that same region of space albeit now with less energy than before (via the loss of the photon) and so is 'stable'.

When an incoming photon strikes an electron in an atom it does not cause the electron to jump between orbitals, rather the original orbital (i.e.: n=1 anti-photon) is deleted (n=1 photon + n=1 anti-photon cancel) and then replaced with the new orbital (i.e.: n=2 anti-photon) via a simple wave addition and subtraction (see Rydberg formula). The electron itself doesn't move within the atom to different orbitals, rather its orbital boundary changes. In the above example the n=1 orbital boundary is replaced by an n=2 orbital boundary.

As the 4 forces reduce to these orbitals; binding energy = ionisation energy = escape velocity in the sense that these each describe the same orbital phenomena.

Photons are not force carriers, rather are a means of information exchange. Download article...

# Bohr model:

The Bohr model depicts the atom as a small, positively
charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in
circular orbits around the nucleus—similar in structure to
the solar system, but with electrostatic forces providing
attraction, rather than gravity.

Although considered incorrect by physicists; it does give
correct results for selected systems. It was later replaced
with a more useful wave model (depicting the electron and
proton as waves). Nevertheless, for certain simple orbits, the Bohr model was
extremely accurate and still no one knows why.

The basic atomic Bohr model uses –c (the speed of light), -λ
(lambda, the particle wavelength), -n (the principal quantum number) and -α (alpha, the fine structure
constant). It presumes that the electron orbit forms a standing wave around the nucleus (aka a particle in a box). Here is proposed that in terms of wave-particle duality the Bohr model can apply to the particle (point) state. It is the wave state for which it is less practical. Consequently the Bohr model may be better applied to gravitational orbitals than to atomic orbitals where the wave state is more prominent. The calculator below demonstrates this.

The calculator (left column) calculates the wavelength and energy of gravitational
waves for a 1kg object lifted above the earths surface. Input a value for height in km (as in the diagram below, h = 1m). The Planck units were taken from the black hole electron calculator. The earth parameters calculated from the standard gravitational parameter.

Key:

- std gravitational parameter = 3.986004418 x10^14

- mass earth * 1kg /mP^2 = .1260784838 x10^41

- Schwarzschild radius earth = .008870056m

- radius earth = 6375416.32m