2pi, fine structure constant alpha, omega - pi^e/e^(e-1) and the sqrt of Planck momentum sqrt(kg.m/s)

This is a model of a 2-D (2 dimensional) universe; these 2 dimensions are entropy and momentum. It is a Planck unit theory albiet the fundamental Planck units are; Planck time t

The universe at the Planck level reduces to the geometry of

The model is divided into 4 parts:

1. The fundamental physical constants are defined in terms of the geometry of 2pi, the fine structure constant alpha, omega and the 2 dimensioned scalars a and b.

2. Postulates a magnetic monopole as a geometrical shape formed from the Ampere A

3. The 4 forces are replaced with physical orbitals (nuclear, atomic, molecular, gravitational).

4. Postulates an expanding black-hole universe with a white-hole universe twin. Parameters for a 13.575 billion year old black hole agree with observations from the the CMB (cosmic microwave background).

A non-technical discussion of the concepts and philosophy can be read online (chapter 2).

"Platos Cave: a model of the universe in terms of the geometry of momentum"

**1: Postulates a 2-D Planck universe from a dimensionless magnetic monopole.**

time: t_{p} = 2pi.a^{6}

velocity: c = 2pi.Ω_{2}.b^{3}/a

length: l_{p} = 2pi^{2}Ω^{2}.a^{5}b^{3}

mass: m_{P} = 1.ab^{5}

charge: A = 64pi^{3}Ω^{3}/(α.a^{3}b^{3})

The
online calculator demonstrates this relationship.

download paper: 2-D Planck unit Mathematical Universe update pending

**2: Electron as a standing wave magnetic monopole**

Proposes a formula for a magnetic monopole (quark) from Planck time t_{p}, -e, -c and alpha. Uses this monopole to solve the mass of the electron and the Rydberg constant. Results consistent with CODATA 2010. Suggests a temperature particle, the 'kelvon'.
**read more...**

download paper: Spherical electron as 'quark' magnetic monopole

download paper: Fine structure constant alpha and the sqrt of Planck momentum

**3: GUT Unified Field Theory: the 4 forces as physical standing wave orbitals**

Replaces the 4 fundamental forces (strong, electric, gravity) with standing wave orbitals (wave functions are treated as
physical waves, essentially photons albiet of opposite phase).
This offers a rationale for the empty space within an atom, how electrons jump between orbitals in the atom,
what is gravitational potential and kinetic energy, quantum entanglement, the relationship between nuclear binding
energy, ionisation energy and escape velocity...

download paper:
Unified Field Theory of Anti-photon Orbitals (nuclear, atomic, molecular, gravitational)

The online gravitational wave calculator calculates gravitational wave frequencies for a 1kg object lifted to height h.
to calculator...

**4: Cosmological constant and expanding black-hole universe with contracting white-hole universe twin**

Proposes an expanding rotating charged black-hole universe with a contracting white-hole universe twin. Units of Planck momentum
are transferred in discrete steps from the white-hole universe to our black-hole universe. Derives mass domain parameters from 3-D sphere volume and charge (electromagnetic) domain parameters (i.e.:Stefan-Boltzmann constant) from 4-D sphere surface area.
Offers solution to CMB (cosmic microwave background) mass density, radiation energy density and temperature. Suggests a cosmological constant based on a temperature particle, the 'kelvon'.

The online calculator demonstrates this relationship
to calculator...

download paper: Time, Dark Energy and the Black-hole White-hole Universe update pending

download paper: Fine structure constant alpha and the sqrt of Planck momentum

Nobel laureate Leon Lederman once wrote:

'My ambition is to see all physics reduced to a formula so elegant and simple that it will fit on a T-shirt'

Copyright (C) © 2003 to present, Malcolm Macleod

email: maclem @ planckmomentum.com

All rights are reserved.

Formulas listed on this site may be freely used for non-commercial purposes with proper credit to www.planckmomentum.com